粉笔 - 绘图材料提供给15世纪的艺术家

Chalk
Credit: Frances Spiegel 2019 with permission from RCT.All rights reserved.

在15世纪的绘画材料

标志达芬奇(1452-1519)逝世500周年,这个非凡的展览展出了由皇家收藏信托持有最好的图纸200。同时展出的是艺术家的生命周期内提供的材料的例子。

通过这些作品,我们获得一个迷人的洞察到艺术家的生活和作品。

拉丝料可用的莱昂纳多

该展览在图纸提供给艺术家材料在15世纪的范围看起来细节。这些将被严格限制,但我们学到了艺术家使用这些材料是如何永远创新。

在1470年代和80年代附图主要执行在任一metalpoint或钢笔和墨水。

Metalpoint手写笔

Metalpoint手写笔
Credit: Frances Spiegel 2019 with permission from RCT.All rights reserved.

Metalpoint

Metalpoint使用手写笔,常发银。纸张涂覆有细磨骨的层,有时用加入的颜料。触笔离开金属对磨料地面痕迹。标记不能被擦除,也不是受由用户施加的压力量。

使用金属手写笔需要精确的控制和纪律,就没有空间了错误。这是15世纪在训练过程中艺术家的主要方法。据1500后失宠与引进粉笔。

Leonardo da Vinci: A life in drawing
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笔墨

All About Ink
Credit: Frances Spiegel 2019 with permission from RCT.All rights reserved.

笔墨

笔从鹅毛切割。纵观他的一生,艺术家创作并用羽毛笔画。他还申请稀释油墨用画笔创造了图中底纹。刷由动物毛集成羽毛的轴。

将该油墨通过铁盐和单宁酸从橡木虫瘿(栎瘿)结合制成。将所得的油墨是厚“铁胆墨”。阿拉伯胶增厚的油墨。随着时间的推移颜色变淡的栗子色。

Leonardo da Vinci: A Closer Look
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粉笔可用

粉笔成为可向15世纪的结束。莱昂纳多的工作主要是与自然的红色和黑色粉笔。他很少选择了白色的粉笔。

粉笔被缩减到一个点,固定在一个分裂棒结束。该生产线是密集,容易粘在纸上,无需修理。

炭是不太精确的绘图材料。这也是不耐用,但研究表明艺术家没有使用它。

莱昂纳多经常结合不同的绘画材料,特别是一旦粉笔变得可用。其中一块是特别有趣的是Head of Leda.

勒达出镜的头红外灯

Head of Leda
Credit: Frances Spiegel 2019 with permission from RCT.All rights reserved.

勒达的头 - 研究丽达与天鹅

在创建这个图。最初使用粉笔或木炭艺术家,使草图 - underdrawings。然后,用笔墨,他工作的underdrawing成最终的图纸。因为红外线考试取得了underdrawing可见这幅画是特别有趣。墨中示出隐藏下方的白垩或木炭画近红外光可见。

Head of Leda在准备研究Leda and the Swan,在一个画家的最后几年绘画执行。这幅画是达芬奇的工作室在他的死亡 and was the most highly valued item in his estate.

Innovative Use of Limited Materials

At the start of the 16th century Leonardo made increasingly innovative use of all the available materials.He would often layer black, red and sometimes white chalks on a red ground often mixing these drawing materials with liquid media including ink, wash or water.This would give an additional richness especially to studies of fabrics or hair, as visible inHead of Leda.

Watercolours

Watercour
Credit: Frances Spiegel 2019 with permission from RCT.All rights reserved.

Watercolour

Leonardo only used colour in drawings intended for others to see such as maps and courtly emblems.

The exhibition presents the results of scientific analysis proving that he used both plant-based dyes and copper-based mineral pigments.Occasionally he used ground lapis lazuli or ultramarine, with gum arabic (a tree resin) as a binding medium.

In the final years of his life he ceased to use colour preferring mainly black chalk, pen and ink and wash.In a few drawings he worked solely in black chalk on a dark grey ground.

Paper with Watermark

Paper with Watermark
Credit: F.Spiegel.

Paper in Leonardo's Time

Paper, made from rags of linen or hemp, was freely available in Leonardo’s time.It was cheaper than parchment due to the book-printing revolution of the 15th century.

Paper was made from rags beaten in water to form a slurry of pulped fibres.The fibres were drawn out of a vat with a rectangular wire sieve (a mould) and pressed and dried.The resulting sheet was treated with gelatin to prevent ink blotting.A design of bent wires was sewn into the mould to make a watermark in the paper, the ‘trademark’ or stamp of the papermaker.

All the artist’s drawings were created on paper.He chose a wide range of papers – white or blue, fine or coarse.He would often coat his paper with a coloured preparation to create a range of tonal effects.

Leonardo da Vinci: A Life in Drawingat The Queen’s Gallery

Leonardo da Vinci: A Life in Drawingcan be seen at The Queen’s Gallery, Buckingham Palace from 24th May to 13th October 2019.Full details are available at the Royal Collection Trust website.

Leonardo Da Vinci
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